Links between religion and technology adoption in disasters
The link between religion and technology adoption is less clear. Most studies focus on the impact of technology uses especially social media and internet in general, on religious belief and practice. Allen Downey found that in the USA, higher Internet use was correlated to a lower probability to have a religious affiliation. She argues that part of the correlation can indeed be explained by Internet use itself (Downey 2014). The potential relationships between the two phenomena are too complex to establish direct links, as found in the literature review, and the debate is still open (Kong 2001). During the literature review a lot of mobile applications were found to be related to religious practice, such as apps to help Muslims to observe Ramadan, programs to point to Mecca or to share pictures with religious quotes. Nevertheless, when technologies like the Internet or social media are perceived by parents or educators as a threat to the religious faith or moral, religion can appear as an obstacle to technology adoption. For instance, in Indonesian Muslim communities, mothers were found to manage their children's use of internet so that it is compatible with Islamic principles (Rahayu, Lim 2016). The link between religion and technology adoption would require more research.
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Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens