Global risks are often exogenous and caused by decisions made in core states and areas that influences the periphery of a world-system


Thus, global risks emerge in different ways; they are mediated by various historical processes, as well as through different cultural and political patterns. In some areas, these risks are not an endogenous process that can be fought with means of autonomous national decisions. In many cases, they are exogenous and were caused by decisions made in other states and areas, which Wallerstein named "the core" that influences "the periphery" of a world-system (Wallerstein, 2004). In the context of globalization, people often feel as helpless "hostages" of these processes, especially if the measures that can correct their consequences lie beyond the control of nation-states and governments (Giddens, 2000).

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