Personal involvement increases citizens' willingness to engage in activities aimed at preserving personal safety
Related to the knowledge of risk is the feeling of familiarity, which lowers risk perception by increasing comfort and feeling of control over potential risk (Weber, Siebenmorgen, & Weber, 2005) In a recent study, De Dominicis and colleagues (De Dominicis et al., 2014) showed that in the case of risk of floods, personal involvement, or so-called place-based identification, increases citizens' sensitivity to the risk and their willingness to engage in protective activities. However, the same factor can also have, in some circumstances, an opposite effect on perceived risk, i.e. it can enhance risk denial (Bonaiuto, Breakwell, & Cano, 1996).
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Cultural Factors: Local knowledge
Hazards: Natural hazards
Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens