In their research, Loewenstein, Lerner, and colleagues (see source document for full references) have shown that specific immediate emotions, both integral and incidental, have specific effects on perceived risk. For example, fear and anxiety increase perception of risk and risk-aversive behaviour, while anger lowers perceived risk and facilitates risk-seeking choices (Lerner et al., 2003). The authors explain observed differences in effects of specific emotions on perceived risk in terms of appraisals that are linked to these emotions. Namely, since fear is linked to the judgements of uncertainty and situational control, it increases perceived risk, while anger, which corresponds to the perception of certainty and the feeling of individual control, decreases it (Lerner et al., 2003).
Note: See source document for full reference.
Cultural Factors: Worldviews
Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens