The most important cross-cultural factors influencing perceived seriousness (or magnitude) of risks
In addition to the factors reviewed so far, people's perceptions of risk are also influenced by their perceptions of a range of qualitative characteristics of the risk source, which has been demonstrated in a large number of studies within the psychometric paradigm (Fischhoff et al., 1978; Slovic, 1987; Slovic et al., 1980). According to Renn and Rohrmann (2000), the following factors are cross-culturally the most important for perceived seriousness (or magnitude) of risks: personal control over risk which increases risk tolerance, i.e. decreases perceived risk; institutional control over risk whose effect depends on the confidence in respective institutions; voluntariness in risk acceptance which increases risk tolerance, i.e. decreases perceived risk; familiarity with the risk source which increases risk tolerance, i.e. decreases perceived risk; dread (or catastrophic potential and certainty of fatal impact) which decreases risk tolerance, i.e. increases perceived risk; distribution of risk and benefits which depends on individual utility but is a strong social incentive for rejecting risks; the artificiality of risk source which amplifies attention to risk and often decreases risk tolerance, i.e. increases perceived risk; blame which increases quest for social and political responses.
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Cultural Factors: Norms/values
Disaster Phases: Prevention
Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens