Natural and man-made hazards are perceived differently and elicit different types of emotions
According to the “affect heuristic”, natural and man-made hazards evoke different emotions in people, which further influence their risk assessment. However, studies have shown that, in addition, those emotions influence people's behaviour both during and after the disaster. Natural disasters are usually perceived as beyond anyone's control, hence they usually evoke sadness and willingness to help other people (Nerb & Spada, 2001). On the other hand, man-made hazards are followed by a greater anger, especially those that are perceived as intentional (Rudski et al., 2011). As a consequence, man-made disasters usually bring more blame and outrage and less helping behaviour (Nerb & Spada, 2001). Behavioural differences in the context of natural and man-made disasters will be further discussed in a separate subchapter with the same title.
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Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens