Human typologies and differences in perceived danger to the individual
According to the research of Rippl (2002), people who are found to be 'fatalists' according to the typology of Douglas and Wildavsky (1982) show a higher risk perception regarding individual dangers (personal unemployment or becoming infected with AIDS). Similar results are found for so-called 'egalitarians', while 'individualists' showed the lowest level of perception of individual dangers (Rippl, 2002). Oltedal and his colleagues (2004) also refer to the research of Hayakawa, Fischbeck, and Fischhoff (2000) in the context of differentiation between the personal and general risk perception. These authors showed that groups that are highly dependent on each other express lower degree of individual optimism, and higher optimism on behalf of the group (Hyakawa et al., 2000).
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Cultural Factors: Worldviews
Disaster Phases: Prevention
Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens