To ensure that risk communication and information related to disasters reach a wide range of citizens, practitioners suggested that multiple communication channels can be used including traditional approaches and more modern approaches via social media platforms. Traditional communication techniques alongside technological advances were seen by practitioners as being advantageous in disaster situations, as “smart” devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets) can help inform and provide information and updates quickly to citizens in disaster situations. In this context, the potential of such devices was highlighted to specifically reach expatriates, migrants or simply holiday makers, i.e. people who may be exposed to significant risks due to a lack of local knowledge: “In France, they are experimenting with some new technologies in some areas. If you have a foreigner mobile phone, you automatically receive some messages with emergency directions for the area you are at that moment” (G1; R), “For all scenarios, we might use more than one communication channel. A direct communication and the use of mobile devices” (G2; R2).
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- Use trustworthy, widespread, multi-lingual, culturally appropriate and inclusive means of alerting the target population in case of disasters
- Inform citizens about the risk they may face and about possible actions and measures, they can take to reduce vulnerability and better prepare themselves
- Use cultural factors to improve the effectiveness of disaster communication