Social and organisational empowerment processes in Cumbria


Social and organisational learning has been a key element of the empowerment process. The natural-hazard governance context was shifting in Cumbria prior to 2009 event. An earlier wide-area flood in 2005 had already exposed many in the county to high-consequence flood effects, and the social and organisational learning this experience had precipitated was already leading to close collaborations between the previously hazard affected and still exposed population and the risk-managing authorities. After the January 2005 event, several Flood Action Groups (FAGs) had already started to develop effective response measures in close collaboration with the emergency services.

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