The role of individual officials in empowerment processes
On another hand, we have to consider also the behaviour of the individual officials of local authorities or disasters' managers, in particular their negative attitude that can discourage empowerment processes. This happens, e.g. in the case of 2013 regional floods in Check Republic-CZ. This is also the feeling of many among the participants in the CARISMAND citizens' summits, who perceive that citizens are regarded, by disaster managers, only as possible victims or as "spectators" and not also as active actors in disaster management.
Note: See source document for full reference.
Cultural Factors: Norms/values
Hazards: Natural hazards