There is the prevailing failure of social promotion programs financed by the public sector in providing appropriate solutions and, more broadly, in the context of crisis of public welfare which creates a "void" that makes it necessary for the citizens to take part and then have to be able to intervene. The diminution of welfare, therefore, sometimes goes hand in hand with the promotion of empowerment programs. This factor, that we have met in the literature (Rappaport, J. 1984; Berger, P. & Neuhaus, R. 1977, for reference see original source document), does not appear explicitly in the studied empowerment practices. However, it can be assimilated to the relevance of citizens' empowerment in disasters/risks management that we meet in the cases of the weakness of the civil defence systems.
Cultural Factors: Social exclusion
Types of Actors Concerned: All types of actors, Local authorities, Active citizens, Entrepreneurs, Media, Government, National research bodies, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations, National civil protection body, Non-active citizens