There are two communication factors to consider: First of all, empowerment processes are facilitated in In a context where the communication among societal actors is rich and, in particular, where a two-ways communication paradigm between citizens and decision makers has been adopted. We can imagine that this paradigm is effective in many cases but it has been underlined just in some of them: the civil protection system in Florence, the civil protection system in Portugal, and in the three cases involved in the WeSenSeit project (Delft-NL, Doncaster-UK and Vicenza-IT; for source see original document), but as an aim to be reached and not as a common practice. The second communication factor is the presence of communication strategies of organizations, networking, group communication, and community media, taking into account specific needs, languages, and cultures (as well as vulnerabilities and capacities of each audience). This factor is considered by OECD (OECD 2010) as a prerequisite in the "shift" towards a community disaster management approach that, as already underlined (in details in D7.1.), is pro-people empowerment. However, this factor does not seem to be taken into account in the European cases considered. Outside Europe, this factor is well mentioned in the frame of the UNDP Communication for Empowerment project, implemented in Ghana, Lao PDR, Madagascar, Mozambique and Nepal.
Note: See source document for full reference.
Cultural Factors: Communication
Types of Actors Concerned: All types of actors, Local authorities, Active citizens, Entrepreneurs, Government, Media, National research bodies, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations, National civil protection body, Non-active citizens