The role of whistle blowing, advocacy and pressure groups in creating bottom-up pressure on institutions
Attempts to empower and involve communities, to navigate difficult cultural issues and nurture functional cultural attributes may still not be enough to avoid or mitigate negative disaster impacts. Equally, institutional power or circumstances can overwhelm decision-makers’ abilities to hear or involve local communities. In these cases, activism and collective pressure from the bottom up may be one of the most appropriate and empowering courses of action. This can take the form of “whistle-blowing”, advocacy and pressure groups and direct action via social media and other mechanisms.
Note: See source document for full reference.
Types of Actors Concerned: National civil protection body, Local authorities, Active citizens, Media, Government, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations