There are multiple and obvious examples of how culture can act as a barrier to disaster management, that can ultimately lead to greater loss of life or property. For example, some citizens might build on hazard-prone locations because they are forced to make their livelihood there; some believe their fate is “in God’s hands”; others may not respond to early warning messages because they do not trust the rule of law or cannot relate to the language or communication style of the messages. A great deal of research effort is spent on investigating how cultural factors increase risk and vulnerability.
Cultural Factors: Norms/values, Customs/traditions/rituals, Worldviews, Languages, Communication, Livelihoods, Rule of law, Attitudes toward authorities, Attitudes toward the media, Attitudes toward environmental issues
Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens