The training, or capacity building dimension of DRR, is an important one in relation to culture and empowerment. Before the 1990s, risk reduction took a top-down, technical and “expert” oriented approach that involved national civil protection and emergency management authorities almost exclusively. Since then, citizens and communities have become a more central focus of capacity building, as public authorities acknowledged that a top-down approach was not influencing behaviour enough. The relatively new approach instead aims at “reinforcing a form of resilience that citizens could enact on their own”. The UN Hyogo Framework of 2005 outlined this ethos, as follows: “disasters can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and motivated to adopt a culture of disaster prevention and resilience”. Again, this shift from an “expert” imposed model to one that gives citizens more power over their own livelihoods would appear to be a more culture-centric one that mitigates disaster impact, whilst appreciating differences amongst citizens. Strong social capital is also an important factor for the development of resilience in communities.
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Types of Actors Concerned: National civil protection body, Local authorities, Non-active citizens, Red Cross, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations
- Develop culturally aware disaster preparedness and response training
- Training programmes for citizens of all ages should be developed. These are necessary to increase citizens’ knowledge of and preparedness in case of disasters. The training activities should be organized on the basis of a training strategy and should take various forms, ranging from emergency drill to workshops
- Foster the adoption of a culture of disaster prevention and resilience by informing and motivating citizens to take action