The response stage bears witness to a climax of activity, stress and dependence on others, which gradually leads into long-term recovery. Strong social and community capital can provide lifesaving and ongoing support for those affected, in terms of providing trustworthy communication channels and social and physical resources. Family units can provide nurturing emotional support and key coping skills. Pre-existing capacities such as these need protection and encouragement during both the response and recovery stages, for sustainable results.
Cultural Factors: Norms/values, Customs/traditions/rituals, Open-mindedness, Worldviews, Individual/collective memory, Local knowledge, Communication, Livelihoods, Gender roles, Age-related roles, Ethnicity, Socio-economic status, Social networks, Access and use of infrastructure/services
Types of Actors Concerned: National civil protection body, Local authorities, Non-active citizens, Active citizens, Entrepreneurs, Media, Government, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations