Disaster culture includes national or regional adaptive strategies, as well as those occurring at the localised, community level and at an individual level. Japan and the Netherlands are the most obvious examples of countries with a very strong disaster culture. Both are exposed to a relatively high level of risk to disasters, yet have consistently low levels of mortality and damage (see for example the annual World Risk Report). These and other countries demonstrate the power of harnessing collective and historical knowledge for the prevention and mitigation of disasters and, perhaps indicatively, it can be difficult to distinguish between artificially imposed cultures and naturally occurring adaptations in these cases. Their model of disaster management is aimed at prevention and preparedness, rather than relief and recovery.
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Types of Actors Concerned: National civil protection body, Local authorities, Non-active citizens, Government, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations