There are also numerous examples where communities adapt their local environment, despite pressure to move away from risk-prone areas. At a local level in disaster cultures, citizens sometimes successfully become part of empowered communities that collaboratively manage the disaster risks affecting their own land and livelihoods. Where DMAs channel the knowledge, skills and practices of a disaster culture, citizens and communities necessarily become “critical stakeholders” in the formal disaster management process, due to the essential local adaptive strategies they adopt and the knowledge of risks that they hold.
Note: See source document for full reference.
Types of Actors Concerned: National civil protection body, Local authorities, Non-active citizens, Government, Red Cross, NGOs, Military, Law enforcement agencies, Healthcare and emergency services, European Civil Protection Mechanism, UN and other international organisations