The role of NGOs in the preparedness phase is crucial. In the preparedness phase, NGOs can complement or even supplant state institutions in their communication of risks. NGOs can spread the message more widely and in a more interactive and understandable fashion than public institutions. Furthermore, they can leverage media to discuss issues of preparedness and mitigation behaviour. However, NGOs can also act as watchdogs and criticize public institutions in cases of any dereliction of duty and suggest improvements. This must be done with care, since partnership with public institutions is crucial in the following two phases.
Cultural Factors: Communication
Types of Actors Concerned: NGOs