Promoting Citizens Observatories in order to change citizens' roles
In some European cases, the public sector encourages and/or compels communities to take responsibility for their own resilience as it happens, particularly, in the United Kingdom (the 'Communities of Resilience Practice in Northern England'-UK, but also the case of the heat waves in London-UK). The promotion of the Citizens' Observatories by the European Commission based on EC Directives (e.g., in Doncaster-UK, Delft-NL and Vicenza-IT in the frame of the WeSenSeit project) with the desire of the local authorities and disaster managers to change the mindset and the role of citizens can be read in this same frame (also if, in the Delfland case-NL, the previous factor prevails).
Note: See source document for full reference.
Hazards: Natural hazards