Citizens' trust in civil defence systems and local authorities
An important factor related to the institutional and community governance to be considered is the people trust in civil defence systems and in local authorities. Unlike the previous ones, it is an ambiguous factor: on one hand, a strong citizens' trust in civil defence and in local authorities can lead citizens to underestimate their empowerment and the former to underestimate the relevance of citizens' empowerment in disasters/risks management; this is what happened, e.g. in Badia-South Tyrol-IT before the exceptionally big landslide in December 2012, or in Saxony-DE before the major flood of 2002; on the other hand, when empowerment processes are "in action" a strong citizens' trust in civil defence and in local authorities strengthens these processes; this is the present situation in the two above-mentioned cases after the major events of 2002 and 2012, as well as in the City of Tatabánya-HU (heat waves and forest fires).
Note: See source document for full reference.